Brief History of PRIMO

The International Symposium series, "Pollutant Responses in Marine Organisms" began in 1981 with a small group of NSF-funded investigators who were addressing questions related to "Chemical Effects and the Health of the Ocean" at a mechanistic level.


The first PRIMO Symposium was held in Plymouth, UK, in 1981 with the goal of stimulating international scientific interactions in this area. The success of the first PRIMO meeting led to a second in 1983 in Woods Hole, USA, and then to biennial meetings held alternately in Europe and the United States. Although the word "marine" was used to produce the memorable acronym, the meeting has never distinguished between, and always has included, marine and freshwater organisms.

To date, PRIMO meetings have been held in the following locations worldwide (see below).

The PRIMO conference series has always been committed to disseminating scientific and research progress through the publication of special issues in two international journals, namely – Aquatic Toxicology and Marine Environmental Research. One of the primary goals of these journals is to promote scientific excellence through the publication of scientific studies in different areas of environmental sciences. Furthermore, the PRIMO conference series is committed to encouraging the participation and recruitment of young researchers into the field through the provision of travel grants.